Specific Situations that have occurred
- Coach calling time-out, when resuming play after a time-out or
intermission, after ball has been placed down and count started so
as to avoid a violation. Can be done by the throw-in team since they
are now considered in control since ball is at their disposal.
Non-throw-in team cannot be granted a time-out in this situation.
- Water on the floor after a time-out is a warning and would only
be a technical foul if it constituted the second warning on that
- A team scores and one of their players, who is out of bounds,
grabs the ball and tosses it to an opponent who is inbounds, who in
turn just dribbles up court. Initial ruling should be a warning for
player of team that just scored interfering with the ball. As it
occurred this would be a throw-in violation since the ball was never
legally taken out of bounds. The warning would prevent having to
access a violation.
- There are 2 defensive and 1 offensive players lined up along the
lane for a free throw. Once the shooter has the ball but before
releasing it a defender enters an unoccupied lane space, followed by
an offensive player entering an unoccupied lane space. Ruling: It is
a delayed violation when the defense enters but once the offense
enters it is an immediate double violation.
- There is basket interference by a player hitting the net when
the ball is on or within the basket. The player committing the
violation gets their hand caught in the net and when returning to
the floor their arm contacts an opponent. Ruling: This would be
considered incidental contact since the ball is dead due to the
violation, therefore unless it was intentional or flagrant the
contact would be ignored.
- The coaching box and X in front of the scorer MUST be in place
before a game can be started. School AA once notified to have it in
place said, “This is our 5th home game and no official had mentioned
it yet’ !!
- During a free throw, a defender backs over the free throw line
before the ball hits the rim. This is a delayed violation with a
substitute free throw awarded if missed. If the free throw is made
but the defender makes contact with the free thrower causing them to
be displaced then this would be a foul.
- If the thrower-in fouls a defender across the boundary line this
is a player control foul.
- When talking with a coach about an unusual situation or ruling
you must invite both coaches to take part. Also, during pre-game do
not say hi to one coach and not the other if they are together.
- Players not returning to the floor in a timely manner is a
technical foul, Rule 10.1.9 (Chart on page 72 tells how it is
- Be sure to have a game ball before end of pre-game.
- 5 players not returning to court at same time after a time-out
or intermission. It is a technical foul if they do not. (Rule 10.1.9
& Casebook Play 10.1.9) Casebook Play 10.3.2B is not after a
time-out or intermission so this is legal.
- If a foul has been ruled and you have identified the shooter yet
the wrong player goes to the line and you think this player is being
deceitful and attempting to shoot the free throws illegally, ask the
player, “are you sure that you are the shooter”, if you receive a
positive response, then assess a technical foul for unsportsmanlike
Rules Needing Attention
- Knee pads are considered sleeves and must conform to color
- Need to identify the pivot foot to better rule on traveling.
Subtle jump stop and step is being missed. (definitely our most
- T-shirts that show considerably in the neckline must conform to
color requirements and be same or very similar color to jersey.
- Sloppily played games are hard too penalize. Work hard, stay
focused, call what needs to be ruled. You can’t feel good about
these games, especially if the ball is not going in the basket.
- Work hard at determining advantage/disadvantage regarding
contact, hold whistle for second to determine effect on play. Don’t
want to be blowing whistle on every contact situation if it had no
real effect on the play. Rule it incidental.
- Be aware of team control fouls on loose ball situations when one
team is still in control.
- During a 20 second interval of time bench personnel may not
stand up but during a 30 second time-out bench personnel may stand,
the only restriction is that players may not sit down.
- The Crew should discuss in pre-game about reminding one another
when a team reaches 6 & 9 fouls so that they are ready to shoot 1 &
1 or 2 free throws, if such information is on the scoreboard.
- Try to be clock aware especially near end of period situations.
Sign of a good, alert official so they are prepared to rule on
timing or shot situations.
- A jump ball is legally tapped if it is contacted by a jumper
before it hits the floor. Do not blow the toss back just because
jumpers miss timed their jump.
- When ruling a block/charge situation ask yourself, “what did the
defender do wrong” ?
- Stay with the shooter if a shot is generated from your PCA.
Don’t be in a hurry to look to the basket. Shooter might get knocked
to the floor and we miss it if we visually leave the play too soon.
- A player who is holding the ball and has it hit out of their
hand by a defender, has lost control of the ball and may dribble
again. The ball does not have to touch the floor.
- Make sure to award or cancel a last second basket attempts very
distinctly. Don’t assume the table knows.
- Make sure to verify that there is player control before granting
- Be cognizant of possible intentional fouls near the end of the
game. It must be a legitimate attempt to play the ball.
- We need to continue to monitor bumping of the dribbler even
though they do not have hands on them.
Signals and Mechanics Concerns
- Arrival on the court 15 minutes prior to the game is needed,
specifically at the sub-varsity level. Seen as few as 8 minutes
- Be aware of having your holding or illegal use signals too high,
can be confused with an intentional foul.
- Be sure to indicate the spot on front court end line throw-ins,
especially needed when throw-in will be across the lane.
- The Trail has the responsibility of the ball not hitting the rim
on free throws. The Lead should not be dealing with this.
- Use of the delayed violation signal on free throws. Only if
violation by defense first. If by defense along lane and then
offense by shooter or player outside the arc then it is a double
violation which goes to AP arrow or next shot.
- Make sure to indicate the spot for the ensuing throw-in when
granting a time-out before going to the table to report. Also, do
not switch positions on time-outs, always go back to where you were
when time-out was granted. Decide in pre-game how you want to handle
- Be sure to complete entire sequence at the site of the foul.
Page #52 n Manual. We do a poor job at identifying the shooter,
especially at the sub-varsity level. Also, need to give type of foul
signal. Make sure to ask partner if ball went in if a shot is
- Slow down and make your signals separate and distinct. Stop the
clock, give direction then indicate spot. Three different signals.
- The three point try signal is at head/shoulder height. (page
#227 of Manual)
- Don’t be a ball watcher, especially as the Lead. You can be
aware of where the ball is without ball watching. Trust your partner
and master your PCA.
- The Lead in front court needs to stay wide near the intersection
of the three point arc and the end line when the ball is on your
side of basket line. Too many officials are setting up halfway
between sideline and lane. Should not have to look behind you to
pick up the ball. Don’t pace so much in this position either. Move
- As the Trail, work the arc if the ball is in the far side of
your PCA in frontcourt, and in backcourt don’t be afraid to come
cross court to cover pressing play on far side of the court. Lead
stay up to help with this pressing play too since sometimes you may
have the best look at contact.
- Closed fist for fouls and open hand for violations is important.
Coaches are watching and many know what signals mean.
- Trail official is way too deep in many instances. Think about
being as deep as the deepest players. Too easy to get straight lined
plus not in good position to step down on shot to cover rebounding.
- Don’t anticipate, seen hands go up with no whistle. Could stop
the clock. Wait a second before whistle if need be.
- Be sure to have whistle in your mouth whenever ball is live.
First of multiple free throws.
- For backcourt end line throw-ins the administering official is
always on the outside towards the nearer sideline.
- When the Lead in transition be sure to look back over your
shoulder to cover play. Avoid backpedaling too, your Achilles will
- Player control and team control are different types of fouls
with different signals required. Don’t give one signal at the site
and another to the table.
- Avoid excess verbiage, “off white, red”. “Off red’s foot, white
ball” Should not be hearing 2 colors given on same play.
- Your body language tells a lot about you and your ruling. Feel
and look assured. Think confidently and don’t let prior mistake
affect the entire remainder of the game.
- Reminder of between period mechanic of the Umpire at 30 second
- Remember, the resuming play procedure is used for foul shots as
well as free throws. Wait until both teams are ready unless one is
delaying, blow whistle, state color and point direction.
- Try to run around players rather than through the middle of them
or thru the lane when going to the reporting area. Think about going
away from the table to get there too. This gives you a better
perspective of all players plus keeps you away from the benches.